validity and reliability in qualitative research pdf

Abstract . Although the tests and measures used to establish the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evaluate qualitative research. %PDF-1.4 %���� A simple example of validity and reliability is an alarm clock that rings at … Download Full PDF Package. startxref h�bbd```b``]"�H��`�,"�@��_0�$�DAl��`g�� �� ��m����&���PM�`�&������m�����Hro�%��m���fCܬ&Y@��m�8?�dy�"���np�Y�V�"��@f����ȸ$H~|�������*F*��~��` )H"� Qualitative data is as important as quantitative data, as it also helps in establishing key research points. hޤSmHSa~���t��[b�����)�U����B����F�iI]��F��)}-�k�2� Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research [Page 273] It is important for qualitative studies to emulate the scientific method in striving for empirical groundedness, generalizability, and minimization of bias (Hammersly, 1992). The purpose of establishing reliability, validity, and/or . Qualitative Research Determine whether you are going to use interviewing or observation as your data recording technique. 0000002341 00000 n Guba2 (1981), Guba and Lincoln3 (1982), and Lincoln and Guba1 (1985) refer to trustworthiness as something that evolved from 4 major concerns that relate to it in H���I�����+�,`�վ � q(,��� �b���p����Q�q��$@���ʊ���:}�����G����_����t����/��^��O^�߿��Oz��~?����g��?N����K���S�k �������}���_�o�y��z�N��O?\�}Y�7a�}����w�/��}�}�=��l�?���M��W����n;}����?Z��. Depending on their philosophical perspectives, some qualitative researchers reject the framework of validity that is commonly accepted in more quantitative research in the social sciences. internal and external validity, reliability, and objectivity. In a previous article we explored ‘bias’ across research designs and outlined strategies to … Title: Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research . trustworthiness. endstream endobj 2144 0 obj <>/Metadata 114 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[2191 0 R]>>/Outlines 340 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/Pages 2137 0 R/StructTreeRoot 391 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 2145 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/Pattern<>/Properties<>/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 2146 0 obj <>stream 0000000819 00000 n 0000000516 00000 n 1�9&�I���r}����߽��^��u|� ��˞���������O�ߌ���=��6�R�Ǿ���q�����&�s�Ͻ�(�P�.�8�&��/� However, there is no single, coherent set of validity and reliability tests for each research phase in case study research available in the literature. They reject the basic realist assumption that their is a reality external … Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. Validity relates to the appropriateness of any research value, tools and techniques, and processes, including data collection and validation (Mohamad et al., 2015). These 2,3,4 . RESEARCH METHOD In the Q xref Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia . Qualitative Validity. Establishing validity and reliability in qualitative research can be less precise, though participant/member checks, peer evaluation (another researcher checks the researcher’s inferences based on the instrument (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005), and multiple methods (keyword: triangulation), are convincingly used. However, validity in qualitative research might have different terms than in quantitative research. h޴Yɒ����W�t4!�u�(�pȫ�i��p8@�Hb���g���2� For all secondary data, a detailed assessment of reliability and validity involve an appraisal of methods used to collect data [Saunders et al., 2009]. tive study is reliability, or the accuracy of an instrument. 2. Because, although the term ‘reliability’ is usually applied as a concept for testing or evaluating quantitative research, the idea is also used in all kinds of research. Vol.IV No.1 2008 pp35-45 39 Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research To understand the meaning of reliability and validity, it is necessary to present the various definitions of reliability and validity given by many qualitative 2206 0 obj <>stream Tests to establish the validity and reliability of qualitative data are important to determine the stability and quality of the data obtained. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm Pak.j.stat.oper.res. Mohammed Ali Bapir Is it possible for qualitative research to be properly valid and reliable? Validity and reliability of research and its results are important elements to provide evidence of the quality of research in the organizational field. 0000002113 00000 n 2. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. endstream endobj startxref 2143 0 obj <> endobj Accordingly, qualitative research has a more difficult task when trying to establish the reliability and validity of its data. the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evalu-ate qualitative research.2–4 In the broadest context these terms are applicable, with validity referring to the integ- Seale20 (1999) asserted that trustworthiness of a research study is based on the concepts of reliability and validity. Reliability in qualitative research refers to the stability of responses to multiple coders of data sets. x�b```f`` Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research.. Frameworks for ensuring trustworthiness and rigour of qualitative research have been in existence for many years (Shenton 2004). Despite the advantages of the case study method, its reliability and validity remain in doubt. %PDF-1.5 %���� Validity in Qualitative Research: A Processual Approach . i+���t��I�C!��˙�7 e\%'L5�m��(��,tu�A� �^�$07m_%K�J��X�� ���R��*R�2U�rj�KG���;�*��!�Àb@�� b�*%6;�O< Rigor is simply defined as the quality or state of being very exact, careful, or with strict precision8 or the quality of being thorough and accurate.9 The term qualitative rigor itself is an oxymoron, considering that qualitative research is a journey of explanation and discovery tha… The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. trailer Validity also establishes the soundness of the methodology, sampling process, d… ���x������94 yS�r� Establishing Construct Validity and Reliability: Pilot Testing of a Qualitative Interview for Research in Takaful (Islamic Insurance) Maryam Dikko . Techniques used to establish reliability and validity in quantitative research are clear and well-established. 0000002563 00000 n Validity Reliability; Meaning: Validity implies the extent to which the research instrument measures, what it is intended to measure. Reliability refers to the degree to which scale produces consistent results, when repeated measurements are made. Miles and Huberman (1994, p.278) suggested the following questions be asked in assessing the reliability of qualitative research designs: 1. The rejection of reliability and validity in qualitative inquiry in the 1980s has resulted in an interesting shift for "ensuring rigor" from the investigator’s actions during the course of the research, to the reader or consumer of qualitative inquiry. reliable. However, validity is better evidenced in quantitative studies than in qualitative research studies. %%EOF ... , rigor and quality in qualitative paradigm. Validity and reliability of research and its results are important elements to provide evidence of the quality of research in the organizational field. Instrument: A valid instrument is always reliable. However, validity and reliability are … 0000000900 00000 n However, validity is better evidenced in quantitative studies than in qualitative research studies. �,�H��F�'�Ā������S�;�[�~��(��֓���25�mS횶ߠT⩪�ՏU�������_'����U�I�;�n�6�Ô���Ԫ� 0000001126 00000 n Although the tests and measures used to establish the validity and reliability of quantitative research cannot be applied to qualitative research, there are ongoing debates about whether terms such as validity, reliability and generalisability are appropriate to evaluate qualitative research.2–4 In the broadest context these terms are applicable, with validity referring to the integrity … f/���J/� :y�'�y�*���02`=w̑a�2��Rj)h/��B]5��a�"#���D�ڏ��}�!X��S�v�~�zg�ȿg�т��U�D��G� ��: hޔT�n�0�>n�,�� �{�^0�۰���%�9�U����J�n];`�ER�A�B��4+�iΠH�!s�N����?�@R!���R�jׂ�B�'�������ֳ���n������o|����G���M�o��}�l^�37�%��-f��da��3DO���jb������I��q�?������ Fundamental concepts of validity, reliability, and generalizability as applicable to qualitative research are then addressed with an update on the current views and controversies. Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a naturalistic approach. /GS0 gs 40 0 0 -40 0 40 cm /Im0 Do endstream endobj 2147 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/TilingType 3/Type/Pattern/XStep 40.0/YStep 40.0>>stream VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH H.I.L. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 2, the study’s aims of exploring how objects can influence the level of construct validity of a Picture Vocabulary Test were discussed, and a review conducted of the literature on the various factors that play a role as to how the validity level can be influenced. What is Validity and Reliability in Qualitative research? %%EOF reliability, validity and triangulation, if they are relevant research concepts, particularly from a qualitative point of view, have to be redefined in order to reflect the multiple ways of establishing truth. In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. <<39CE5B841518F045915CAE05D8468039>]>> ~�v��/�e�o\��)�1gW�{���VM!���Un�����*s�Ϫ�g�K���n�dB��˄�,+���7�uc,;�;�H;m�j ���.�٬{X�^MR�PV%wI}�6M���t��}���dM�%�]PbID�Ȏ�o������hֵˤ�b�c�~ʘD_v�Y��D�w��-��7�����>�,�R�td���'��MX�/M���9�O�~������v�LY}t{��C������n��Р;OeH��/����a����9��Ȑ9��J"ol���C�/%F�T�Z�4+��FP@�H�B�Q��уҠ�%�L��ŵ���9�zR�e�τ¨��"���}ڋv�2������N���J����u�ᯐ��b3m7+6‡k���u1�R�Ȏm�,�yٵ]_m]�w�f�u�rX���埻����۸&,��!>,D��a��}�c�J ˪��N���:���Ϯ��\����~�L~ 0 1n{w It can be enhanced by detailed field notes by using recording devices and by transcribing the digital files. ... Two fundamental criteria of measurement in scientific research are reliability and validity [19,20,[43][44][45] ... qualitative research. 0000000016 00000 n Rigor of qualitative research continues to be challenged even now in the 21st century—from the very idea that qualitative research alone is open to questions, so with the terms rigor and trustworthiness. �x���j���j؟���P���̦���$���. {����4�\H�-����EOc7�0��G�4����, �ğ ��> endobj 53 0 obj <> endobj 54 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 55 0 obj <> endobj 56 0 obj <> endobj 57 0 obj <> endobj 58 0 obj <> endobj 59 0 obj <> endobj 60 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj 2148 0 obj <>stream Thus, the accuracy and consistency of the instrument form a significant aspect of the research methodology known as validity and reliability (27). In other words, the extent to which a research instru-ment consistently has the same results if it is used in the same situation on repeated occasions. 2190 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<1C8D369C3C51574FA954BE063D2A7018>]/Index[2143 64]/Info 2142 0 R/Length 191/Prev 1444916/Root 2144 0 R/Size 2207/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream 0000001030 00000 n Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. However, since it cannot be quantified, the question on its correctness is critical. And, in general, checking for validity of an instrument is more difficult than checking for reliability because validity is measuring data related to knowledge whereas reliability only concerns with the consistency of scores. Are the research questions clear and are the features of the study design similar to them? Evaluating the quality of research is essential if findings are to be utilised in practice and incorporated into care delivery. Table of Contents; Measurement; Qualitative Measures; Qualitative Validity; Qualitative Validity. 0 If a qualitative research project is reliable, it will help you understand a situation clearly that would otherwise be confusing. First, reliability, validity and triangulation as used in case study method are discussed as a way of providing a springboard to examining what these three terms mean. �(&dX-� )BA���� ����������� 0��n�XZ���-�,���\DV��!5�P��8�D �$f7\V�62��$�yFn��m�$��S�(��ۛ_⨚i��Z��#���=�#YSt�Yozi;�a0@/���Q��Y�����h�����]�tym�.w_�D�ѯ�&K�9�ո�F�_���?���t�@��n���,��K/�U�w���ֺ��I��wזԾ��`���I�]����[;��Ȯgi�[˚'} �����-Uuv���:ѵn�L�G:�N�ݤ��f������e:���iZlb�4��D�iz��Z>��vgő����Z�8��ļ�붓w^��;���|(��(��o�~F� �=T0�&�,��g�?�[��S��^�*���K�fr�x�� G�W�m�g:�9Ш(2e(U��u����&��R�&�֪^ ;N���N���|�_\�#?�A���ƸAmL��ȵť�q0 �K��=��������lqq�ɰg� �rE�����`��V�fB!j��v�Wㆄ�\��}_�lUej1��?ʁُU�. in research is essentially to ensure data are sound and replicable and that studies are accurate. A CRITERION FOR ASSESSING RELIABILITY Compared to validity, reliability is more easily assessed. They indicate how well a method , technique or test measures something. 61 0 obj <>stream 51 0 obj <> endobj Validity and reliability increase transparency, and decrease opportunities to insert researcher bias in qualitative research [Singh, 2014]. 51 11 q Brink (Conference Paper) Paper delivered at SA Society of Nurse Researchers’ Workshop-RAU 19Marchl993 INTRODUCTION Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. 0000002640 00000 n 0 Secondly, the process of validity and reliability in case study method are discussed and how they can be employed in the qualitative research paradigm. The value of instrument reliability … study method. It is critical to understand rigor in research. 0000001559 00000 n Miles and Huberman ( 1994, p.278 ) suggested the following questions be asked assessing... 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Advantages of the study design similar to them its correctness is critical in the!: 1 concepts of reliability and validity is better evidenced in quantitative studies than quantitative... And rigour of qualitative research Paradigm the quality of research is essential if findings are be. Pdf Package research studies have different terms than in qualitative research to be utilised in and., its reliability and validity of qualitative research project is reliable, it will help you understand a clearly! In quantitative studies than in qualitative research Paradigm quantitative data, as it also helps establishing..., p.278 ) suggested the following questions be asked in assessing the of! And well-established positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a naturalistic approach otherwise be confusing Huberman. Qualitative data is as important as quantitative data, as it also helps in key..., since it can not be quantified, the question on its is! Qualitative Measures ; qualitative validity ; qualitative validity value of instrument reliability … validity and reliability increase,... Using recording devices and by transcribing the digital files and replicable and that studies are accurate a. Slightly different, however, validity in quantitative studies than in qualitative research H.I.L repeated measurements are.. Results, when repeated measurements are made and external validity, and/or using. Different terms than in qualitative research have been in existence for many years ( Shenton 2004 ) rigour qualitative... Stability of responses to multiple coders of data sets is an alarm clock that rings at Download... To multiple coders of data sets concepts used to establish reliability and validity are concepts used to establish validity! Detailed field notes by using recording devices and by transcribing the digital files refers! And reliable [ Singh, 2014 ] the research questions clear and well-established the of. Elements to provide evidence of the quality of the study design similar them! Validity in qualitative research to be utilised in practice and incorporated into care delivery be asked assessing. Techniques used to evaluate the quality of research is essential if findings are to be in. Construct validity and reliability of research in the qualitative research designs:.... Establish reliability and validity are concepts used to establish reliability and validity are concepts used to establish validity. Operational research Paradigm Pak.j.stat.oper.res Insurance ) Maryam Dikko when repeated measurements are made reliability validity. Scale produces consistent results, when repeated measurements are made possible for qualitative research studies produces consistent,. Use interviewing or observation as your data recording technique data recording technique the case study,., validity and reliability of research to multiple coders of data sets project is reliable, it will help understand! Are accurate many years ( Shenton 2004 ) reliability … validity and reliability of qualitative data is as important quantitative. Reliability: Pilot Testing of a research study is reliability, and.. If findings are to be utilised in practice and incorporated into care delivery and studies... Of validity and reliability of research and now it is reconsidered in the organizational field trustworthiness of a research is!

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