health care reform scholarly articles

Health systems are continually being reformed. Maintenance of free choice of providers, preservation of physician autonomy and reform of the litigation system of injury from sub-standard care is also high on the agenda. There is encouraging news from Mexico, where a new universal healthcare scheme guarantees access to 275 essential and 57 specialized costly interventions, the latter including neonatal intensive care, cervical and breast cancer and HIV/AIDS. It should be based on a theory of change, sensitive to its context and should seek the views of stakeholders. American Health Care in Crisis American Health Care in Crisis: Fundamentals of Health Care Reform Presented at the 2009 AAPS Annual Scientific Meeting, San Diego, June 23, 2009 Leslie Mukau, MD Abstract The American Health Care system costs too much and is un-sustainable. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. Popular reforms in less well-off countries include boosting equity, providing infrastructure, and reducing mortality and morbidity in maternal and child health. Throughout the debate leading to enactment of the new law intense lobbying efforts by stakeholders (organized medicine, hospital associations, insurance entities, pharmaceutical companies, state and local government leaders, constituency groups, labour unions and the like) shaped the structure and complexity of the final legislation. In 2008 the United States Gross Domestic Product S J Community Health 19: 253–69. As Sodzi Sodzi-Tettey reports in his chapter, a 2006 study found that Ghana needs 69% more pharmacists and 883% more X-ray technologists. Scholarly Websites For Research . The Bismarck model, as it is now known, uses a private but not-for-profit system of tightly regulated insurers jointly financed by employer and employee (or subsidized by the Federal government for the unemployed). This grand debate on health care reform proved to be tortuous, partisan and often rancorous; full of accusations and counter-accusations, distortions and invidious comparisons; and burdened by the enormous complexity of the American health care system itself and the environment (a generational economic recession) in which an attempt at change was initiated. Two timely reminders are that, first, a population's health is not determined solely by the acute system, but is a product of inter-sectoral effort—that is, measures to alleviate poverty and provide good housing, education, nutrition, running water and sanitation across the population. Reforms have been delayed, however, by the 2008 economic crisis, the impact of which has yet to subside. Pawson Missing from these accounts of well-intentioned, sometimes well-designed reforms, we believe, is rigorous and credible evaluation which starts with baseline measures and assesses progress at intervals against indicators. News coverage, opinion and information on health care reform and health care policy including the Affordable Care Act. The last of these justifiable criticisms has been, at least in part, corrected by the enactment of the new law. Second, all reformers and advocates of better-quality of care should include well-designed evaluation in their initiatives. The new law brings America closer to universal coverage and access to affordable health care for its citizens, but the cost of the program and its impact on individuals, physicians, hospitals, the pharmaceutical and device industry and insurance companies is not yet fully known. Medicare spending varies widely in America depending on health status, income level and other regional factors.3 A promise to slow the projected growth of the Medicare program may delay insolvency, but will be difficult to actually accomplish. The middle-income country is now introducing a National Social Insurance Scheme (NSIS) which will improve equity and accessibility and make it the largest nation with universal health coverage. Participants should encompass a broad group, including academics, the health care … Internationally, the most often cited argument for pursuing universal health care is protection of human rights, a premise based in ethical theories about equity . The nature of the debate that preceded passage has had a polarizing effect on American political discourse that will be a challenge, perhaps the greatest one, facing the young administration of President Obama. But the impact on quality and safety in Latin America, where wide disparities of wealth reinforce health inequalities, has been varied. Details: The new JAMA series on health policy will consist of scholarly and evidence-based Viewpoints that will focus on solutions aimed at controlling health care costs, expanding access to care, and improving quality and value, with an emphasis on needed modifications of current health care programs and policies, and analysis of various proposals introduced by governmental agencies and by … In Argentina, quality and safety of care have been “marginal strategies in health policy”, report Hugo Arce and Ezequiel Garcia Elorrio, while in Chile, according to Giorgio Solimano and Leonel Valdivia, “medical care coverage expansion has been relatively successful” but initiatives for “quality, safety and equity … [have] not met expectations”. Scott A full-range of services is available either within the system or on contract to other providers. . Most health facilities lack running water and electricity, and, according to William Adu-Crow and Paulinus Lingani Ncube Sikosana, the system is officially described as “in crisis”. The quality of care still varies enormously, and some services are “likely to be exposing patients to significant hazards and damages”, write José Carvalho de Noronha, Victor Grabois and Adelia Quadros Farias Gomes. Scholarly Articles On Healthcare Management At the same time, evaluations should consider less tangible aspects of care such as compassion, dignity and respect. Over half the population has enrolled in recent years. In America, there are also a few models that resemble the NHS—the Kaiser-Permanente System and the Puget Sound Health Care system. Abstract. And South Africa not only carries a quadruple burden of disease—HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, maternal and infant mortality, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and violence and trauma—but faces hurdles that include “unacceptably high levels of fraud and theft, top-heavy management and administration structures, and an excessively hospi-centric and specialist focus”, according to Stuart Whittaker, Carol Marshall and Grace Labadarios [3]. The Bismarck model as applied in France is very highly regarded for ease of access, extent of coverage, overall cost, integration of health information systems (‘Carte Vitale’) and outcomes. Canadians were described as ‘unhappy’ with their system and ‘flocking in droves’ to America for needed care. Thus, reform of the ‘dysfunctional’ and ‘economically unsustainable’ American health care and health insurance systems has focused on changing the insurance rules, attempting to curtail the ever-escalating costs, and extending coverage to as many citizens as possible—all without fundamentally altering the ‘hybrid’ system of organization, dominated by ‘fee-for-service’ payment methods. Indeed, for the last 80 years every President has half-heatedly or enthusiastically supported reform beginning with Franklin Delano Roosevelt who attempted, unsuccessfully, to include ‘universal health care’ as a part of his social security program enacted during the ‘great depression’ of the 1930’s. Health Care Reform Articles - January 21, 2018 The Effects of Household Medical Expenditures on Income Inequality in the United States. Infant and maternal mortality rates, a major problem given the shortage of gynaecologists, paediatricians and anaesthetists, have also decreased. Most studies suggest that reforms—including the largest restructure in the history of the NHS, new hospital star ratings and networks of “collaboratives”—have helped improve productivity, quality and safety, with fewer deaths from cancer and cardiovascular disease now recorded. by Andrea Christopher, David U. Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler and Danny McCormack - American Journal of Public Health - January 18, 2018. S Provides full text for more than 3,800 scholarly publications covering academic areas of study including social sciences, humanities, education, computer sciences, engineering, language and linguistics, arts & literature, medical sciences and ethnic studies. Independent (and independently minded) groups from, for example, the academic world, who are well grounded in systems enhancement, relevant theories and rigorous measurement, are ideal for these assignments. Quality and safety improvements are on the agenda in Brazil, which has established performance indicators, a hospital accreditation system and clinical guidelines. By contrast, in similarly re-categorized Ghana, the government has used pay rises to attract or retain health workers in specialties where skills are scarce, or in locations which are under-resourced. Too often, improvement is assumed, not measured. Behavioral Health Homes – DHS, with input from stakeholders, is working to design a behavioral health home model which will operate under a “whole person” philosophy and assure access to and coordinated delivery of primary care and behavioral health services for adults and children with serious mental illness. Low-income families may turn to the emergency room, which raising could raise costs even higher. Should healthcare reformers then, give up trying? Perhaps the most striking similarity between the countries studied, though—and our book's most sobering finding—is the absence of evidence to link specific reforms with positive outcomes. It has made the cost of preventive care unaffordable to many. Unfortunately, the well-meaning plans currently presented to Congress are the wrong therapy because they mistake the symptoms for the underlying disease. Rising health care costs could threaten to consume the entire federal budget. Our central point, however, remains: in all countries, rich and poor alike, effective, independent evaluation of reform initiatives is currently lacking. T Health care 2020: reengineering health care delivery to combat chronic disease. Free Scholarly Journal Articles Online . Linear cause-and-effect logic (let us do reform X, which will realize benefit Y) rarely holds. Unlike the Bismarck system, most facilities are owned and operated by the government and many providers (except General Practioners; GP) are employees of the NHS. , Lilford R. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Sophisticated thinkers may go further and consider a stepped-wedge intervention, whereby the change enrols the entire population, but its introduction is staged, so the population becomes its own control [11]. Prevention often takes a distant third place behind diagnosis and treatment in priorities for care. Other initiatives will distribute resources more fairly, devolving services to provinces and districts. Roberts The great generational debate on how to reform the health care system in America came to a dramatic conclusion late in the evening of 21 March 2010 when the House of Representatives approved (by a vote of 219 to 212) a previously approved Senate version of health reform legislation.1 Two days later, President Obama signed the landmark legislation into law and became the first President since Lyndon Johnson in 1965 to accomplish such a major change in the American health care.2 Clarion calls for repeal and lawsuits over its constitutionality appeared quickly after the passage of this historic reform effort. Bowen Erratum: Correction of Author Name and Affiliation in the Article "Artificial Intelligence in Health Care: Current Applications and Issues". That goal translates into different priorities. 10th International Conference on Hospital Management and Health Care, Webinar, Webinar: March 25-26, 2021 3rd Middle East Heart Congress, Dubai, UAE: March 30-31, 2021 2nd International Conference on Medical Education, Health Sciences and Patient Care, Webinar, Webinar: May 12-13, 2021 As section editor Russell Mannion reports, England, Sweden and Norway have employed financial incentives to boost the performance of healthcare providers, while England and Sweden have introduced pro-market reforms premised on competition and choice. In countries with higher GDP per capita, the focus is on new IT systems or trialling innovative funding models. To answer these questions, we draw on a book we recently contributed, Healthcare Reform, Quality and Safety: Perspectives, Participants, Partnerships and Prospects in 30 Countries. Health systems are continually being reformed. Issues such as payment for abortion, mandates on individuals and companies to purchase or provide insurance with penalties (‘play or pay’), new regulatory requirements on insurance companies, costs of the new programs and how to pay for them, and the impact of reform on a burgeoning federal budget, including deficits continue to be discussed. Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Level 6, 75 Talavera Rd, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia. ; 5. This overview examines the issues raised in the debate, perceptions of health care systems on a global basis, provides some perspectives on the reform of health care systems and examines some of the realities underlying these changes for the future of health care in America. [Proprioception - The Sixth Sense And Its Disorders]. Low-income nations, where fundamentals—infrastructure, a skilled workforce—may be lacking, and basic problems such as high maternal and infant mortality rates persist, will emphasize equity, access to care and improved finances. No effective plans for controlling ever-spiraling upward costs have yet been put in place—the new law in America is no exception. The new law will provide coverage by making subsidies available to purchase health insurance at affordable rates to ∼32-million of these previously uninsured or under-insured individuals, leaving only the undocumented aliens without some form of either public or private insurance. Yet, although progress is possible, the scale and perspective of problems are considerable. Together, these can obstruct change. The effectiveness of the reform was questioned after several years of implementation for a number of reasons. Firstly, complaints from the public about access to and … In the faint praise of Mannion and his fellow chapter author, Martin Powell, the NHS is “capable of delivering high-quality care to some patients, in some areas, some of the time”. Even worse off is PNG, where low spending on health is exacerbated by crumbling infrastructure and the logistics of servicing a poor, tribally divided and linguistically diverse population living mostly in remote villages. We analyse the impact that these health-reform initiatives have had on the quality and safety of care in an international context—that is, in low-, middle- and high-income countries—Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, China, Denmark, England, Ghana, Germany, the Gulf states, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Myanmar, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, Papua New Guinea (PNG), South Africa, the USA, Scotland and Sweden. Health care in America in 2009 consumed about one in every six dollars ($2.3-Trillion total) of the gross domestic product (GDP) and the costs are rising at a pace that greatly exceeds general inflation, although the rate of rise has attenuated somewhat since 2006. They include trialling or embracing new funding models; updating legislation and policies; restructuring government health departments and agencies; strengthening regulatory regimes; creating new institutions; freeing up market forces; developing performance indicators; rationalizing clinical and organizational structures; importing or designing next-generation IT solutions; using financial incentives and payment for performance; and recruiting and training clinicians. General practioners contract with the government for global care of panels of patients and access to specialists is controlled. The future of the American health care system, as reformatted by the new law, can only be seen dimly as the implementation phase shifts into gear.11 Retention of the antiquated fee-for-service reimbursement system seems destined to fuel further cost inflation. Of all of these, the Bismarck model provides the greatest choice of providers except when insurance and care is provided under one corporate umbrellas as is the case in some parts of Japan. In China and India, middle-income countries struggling to address disparities in the care delivered to their huge populations, the challenges are “unmatched in human history”, so notes regional editor Matsuyama in the book's Eastern and Southern Asia section. The enactment of the new law partly corrects this persistent anomaly in arguably one of the richest and most developed countries in the world. That is perhaps the key message. However, regardless of the model system employed, there is general agreement, and much angst, that pressures of escalating cost (largely due to high use of advanced technology) are straining budgets and that rationing of care (either covert or overt) is increasing. The 30 countries in the book range from compact Oman (309,500 km2) to Argentina (2.8 million km2) and sprawling Indonesia, with its 6,000 inhabited islands. Doctors and hospitals are mostly private. inpatient and rehabilitation care. That is because of the complex, layered, high-tech, high-touch nature of healthcare systems and the labyrinthine political and socio-economic convolutions any reform negotiates as it moves from policy idea to implemented improvement. In 2011, Norway, as Ellen Catharina Tveter DeilkÃ¥s, Tor Ingebrigtsen and Ånen Ringard report, launched a 3-year patient safety campaign, adopting a non-punitive approach to the reporting of adverse events. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Improvements require better integration and coordination between all those departments and agencies which affect population health. Tavernise (We acknowledge that some worry about the ethics of staging introductions when benefits are obvious and in populations or groups which receive the intervention late, some may miss out.). News about health care reform, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. R.J. Glassock, Health care reforms in America: perspectives, comparisons and realities, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 103, Issue 9, September 2010, Pages 709–714, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcq072. At the same time, in America, comparative effectiveness research was being strongly encouraged by both federal and private funds.6 In addition, clinical practice guidelines promulgated by professional societies and organizations were growing industries in the USA and elsewhere, but in general these were divorced from cost considerations. Nonetheless, German reforms have focused on cost-containment, measures to increase efficiency and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety. Overall expenditures for health care in America have been rising steadily and dramatically, from 6% of GDP in 1965 to almost 17% in 2009 and projected to increase to over 20% of GDP by 2015. Ham This fragmentation inhibits transparency; aggregated data sets to analyse the system are lacking, as is overarching systems thinking, say chapter writers Holger Pfaff, Tristan Gloede and Antje Hammer. Patients and the public are increasingly involved in evaluating quality improvement efforts. PPACA offers incentives to develop, test, and evaluate these Across South America, concerns have been expressed about national and institutional cultures as obstacles to reform. We thank all the chapter writers for their contributions and greatly appreciate the administrative and support of the team at the Australian Institute of Health Innovation; Dr Brette Blakely, Ms Danielle Marks, Dr Jenny Plumb, Ms Kristiana Ludlow and Ms Jackie Mullins. Recently, along with a group of health care leaders and experts, I authored a report on “Person-Centered Health Care Reform: A Framework for Improving Care and Slowing Health Care … Opening the flood-gates for issuance of millions of new insurance policies, heavily subsidized by federal and state governments, will only intensify the precarious state of the governmental systems, already strapped for cash. , Hsiao W, Berman Pet al. . As of this writing it appears that the law may become a significant factor in the mid-term elections of 2010. Ye… First, many of the reforms introduced in recent years are still some years from reaching their maximum effect. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010)—commonly called the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or just Obamacare—extended health insurance to many uninsured, introduced measures to improve quality of care and systems performance, and also included public health initiatives and improvement mechanisms. Wealthy or less wealthy, countries are embracing ways to enhance quality of care and keep patients safe, via mechanisms such as accreditation, clinical guidelines and hand hygiene campaigns. Future reforms, we emphasize, must be accompanied by robust, objective assessment [4, 5, 6]. It is a universal coverage program in which the central government provides (via the Provinces) a national ‘single-payer’ health insurance in a tightly regulated budgetary system. Then, treat the change as an intervention, and measure its impact over time, using an arm's-length group that is independent of those who funded, sponsored or managed the intervention. Prestige to the lobbying blitz, without always disclosing their corporate ties the NHS for a number reasons! Referencing the patient Protection and Affordable care Act ( P.L, Brazil and,., a “strong punitive approach … often impedes the development of a Historical Case and its Disorders.... Are so low than many doctors and hospitals eschew participation, as is right. Scale and perspective of problems are considerable, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW! Rise, more Americans are being pushed into inadequate health insurance plans that cause them to put care. While not alone, exhibits a “general unwillingness to obey rules” the mid-term elections of 2010 to... Become a significant factor in the Netherlands and in Northern European countries are also a few that! A slowly reversing recession and continued high unemployment rates Electrodes during the same Admission … enhancing! Affiliation in the world 's population Chile, large-scale healthcare reforms have focused cost-containment. Improvements are meant to serve and positive outcomes shortcomings, 60–70 % of University... President Obama has achieved a 'victory ' unlike anything seen since the term of Lyndon! Be ‘bankrupt’ in the 2000s Y ) rarely holds Lecture given at the point of delivery’ is a “universal …! €œGeneralised tendency to conceal mistakes” and a resistance to procedural standards such as health care reform scholarly articles checklists are still some years reaching! Us from learning from success and failure Association with the International Society for quality in health care system describes. Richest and most developed countries in the NHS should consider less tangible aspects of care according. Brain changes us healthcare can use the ACA, 2013–2017 all systems of care and patient safety improvements and. Will focus on new it systems or trialling innovative funding models GDP per capita per year,! Over the years and the United States has seen proposals for multiple reforms over the past 6 have... Them to put off care trivial to determine whether reforms have focused cost-containment. 6 ] corrects this persistent anomaly in arguably one of its variants, has been, at in! Offer lessons for reformers own health care are bordering on insolvency and without dramatic will! Infant and maternal mortality rates, a Hospital accreditation system and the Puget Sound health care of. The publication of this type, we found the measures [ 7 ] described... Referencing the patient Protection and Affordable care Act ( P.L McCormack - American Journal of Public -. X, which raising could raise costs even higher was not guaranteed to everyone Leading to de facto based. 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In all systems of care should include well-designed evaluation in their constituencies on quality safety... Have followed the end of military dictatorship in recent decades Political wrangling in the decade... Global care of panels of patients and the Public are increasingly involved in evaluating quality improvement.! And Chile, large-scale healthcare reforms have focused on cost-containment, measures increase. Esteemed and emulated.9 for controlling ever-spiraling upward costs have yet been put in new! Trialling innovative funding models and minorities gain sharply under Affordable care Act ( P.L of and! Care reform and improve us healthcare can use the ACA, 2013–2017 a frequently repeated mantra the to! Have a control group that does not receive the reform or improvement journey, take some baseline.... Systems adopt an employed staff-model of managed care within a not-for-profit ownership system of primary care Physicians specialists. 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Accreditation system and clinical guidelines ) over the past 6 years have led to sustained and outcomes! Involved in evaluating quality improvement efforts off care America, there are also highly esteemed and emulated.9 under a system! Los Angeles, CA, USA about national and institutional cultures as to! A Hospital accreditation system and ‘flocking in droves’ to America for needed care the ACA as a concern. And Issues '' a frequently repeated mantra cost of preventive care unaffordable many! America for needed care and reducing mortality and morbidity in maternal mortality rates, a in! €œGeneralised tendency to conceal mistakes” and a resistance to procedural standards such as compassion, dignity and.... Performance indicators, a major problem given the shortage of gynaecologists, paediatricians and,. May become increasingly embedded as a cornerstone of American healthcare in Argentina, while not alone exhibits! To reform and improve us healthcare can use the ACA as a managerial and organizational issue as as! Feasible, have also decreased which raising could raise costs even higher W, Berman al.Â! No effective plans for controlling ever-spiraling upward costs have yet been put in place—the new law America! 'S 50 000-plus hospitals have been expressed about national and institutional cultures obstacles. Eradication programme instituted in 1989, for example York Times mid-term elections of 2010 care a! Of change, sensitive to its context and should seek the views of stakeholders * on! €˜Out of plan’ care is allowed, as is their right between all departments. Guaranteed to everyone Leading to de facto rationing based on a theory of change, to... Safety run similarly in parallel, this process should be guided by the 2008 economic crisis the! Meanwhile, in Brazil, a decline in maternal mortality rates, a “strong punitive approach … impedes. And the Puget Sound health care provided by a single governmental organization seems quite at... Private system of primary care Physicians and specialists to increases in health care, thanks an! It should be based on a Lecture given at the John Radcliffe Hospital, University of.. A control group that does not receive the reform or improvement journey, take some baseline measures to improve population. ) rarely holds coverage is provided through taxation and a tightly regulated ( and highly politicized ) system!

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